Participation and decision making pattern of women in farm related activities in Rural Areas of Telangana

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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 10 Number 02 (2021) Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2021.1003.201 Participation and Decision Making Pattern of Women in Farm Related Activities in Rural Areas of Telangana Vavilala Priyanka*, Kalyan Ghadei and Bathini Srishailam Department of Extension education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh-221005, India *Corresponding author ABSTRACT Keywords Extent of participation, Level of decision making, Farm related activities Article Info Accepted: 15 February 2021 Available Online: 10 March 2021 The present study was conducted with the specific objective “To study the participation and decision making pattern of women in farm related activities in rural areas of Telangana”. For this purpose, a total of 150 respondents were selected randomly from 12 villages of Karimnagar, Jagityal and Mancherial districts of Telangana and were interviewed with the help of structured interview schedule. The results revealed that women had high participation in sowing, weeding, application of fertilizers, labour management, grading and the overall participation of women in farm related activities falls under medium category (68.66%) followed by low category (17.33%) whereas women took majority of the farm related decisions with their husband or father or relatives and the overall distribution of rural women in decision making in farm related activities fall under medium category (72.00 %) followed by low category (14.66%). Introduction India is an agriculture country and most of its people are directly or indirectly still dependent on agriculture and allied sectors. It is the primary occupation for around fifty eight percent of the India‟s population. Women play a major role in agriculture. It provides employment for more than fifty percent of the women in the country. They not only participate in the agricultural activities but are actively involved in decision making activities. The contribution of women is expected to be about fifty to sixty percent. Besides taking care of the household, they actively participate in the on-farm and offfarm activities. Chakravarty (1975) revealed that, on an average a farm women spends around eight to nine hours a day on the farm activities particularly when it is the peak period of agricultural season. 1604 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 Objectives Results and Discussion To study the extent of participation of women in farm related activities Extent of participation of rural women in farm related activities To study the decision making pattern of women in farm related activities The farm related activities were categorized into pre-production, production and post production activities. Materials and Methods Pre-production activities Exploratory research design was followed for carrying out the study. The state Telangana comprises of 31 districts. However, only three districts namely, Karimnagar, Jagityal and Mancherial were selected purposively as they have high sex ration and participation of women in all the activities. From each district, two mandals were selected purposively. Further, from each mandal, two villages were selected randomly. Thus, a total of 6 mandals and 12 villages were selected. From each selected village, 12 to 13 respondents were selected randomly. Thus, a total of 150 respondents were selected. The responses were recorded on a three point continuum scale as full participation, partial participation and no participation in the particular activity then scores were assigned as 2, 1, 0 respectively. For decision making, self decision, decision with husband or father or relatives and no decision continuum scales were used and then scores were assigned as 2, 1, 0 respectively. The data collected was processed and tabulated manually. Frequency and percentage were calculated to analyze the data. Mean and standard Deviation was used to categorize the respondents into „low‟, „medium‟ and „high‟ categories. The data from the table 1 revealed that full participation was observed in purchasing of farm land (42.60%), followed by Construction of farm building (38.60%), Purchase of farm equipment (21.33%) and Repairing of farm building (15.33%). As regard to partial participation, Construction of farm building (33.33%), followed by purchasing of farm land (32.00%), Purchase of farm equipment (28.66%) and Repairing of farm building (25.33%). As regard to no participation, repairing of farm building (59.33%), followed by Purchase of farm equipment (50.00%), Construction of farm building (28.00%) and purchasing of farm land (25.30%). Production activities The data from the table 1 revealed that full participation was observed in labour management (76.00%), followed by weeding (73.33%), harvesting (73.33%), sowing (68.00%), application of fertilizers (66.00%), selection of variety (43.33%), selection of crops (38.66%), irrigation (18.00%), application of chemicals (10.00%) and ploughing (03.33%). As regard to partial participation, selection of crops (36.66%), followed by selection of variety (35.33%), irrigation (22.66%), application of chemicals (22.00%), ploughing (18.66%), weeding (15.33%), application of fertilizers (12.00%), sowing (10.00%), harvesting (04.66%) and labour management (02.66%). As regard to no participation, ploughing (78.00%), followed 1605 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 by application of chemicals (68.00%), irrigation (59.33%), selection of crops (24.66%), sowing (22.00%), Application of fertilizers (22.00%), Harvesting (22.00%), Selection of variety (21.33%), Labour management (21.33 %) and weeding (11.33%). Pre production activities The data from the table 3 revealed that self decision was observed in purchasing of farm land (20.00%), followed by construction of farm building (19.33%), purchasing of farm equipment (15.33%) and repairing of farm building (14.00%). Post production activities The data from the table 1 revealed that full participation was observed in grading (61.33%), followed by selling of produce (53.33%), Selection of market (52.66%), Storing (37.33%), Winnowing (34.66%) and processing activities (21.33%). As regard to partial participation, selling of produce (24.00%), followed by selection of market (22.66%), grading (19.33%), storing (07.33%), processing activities (04.00%) and winnowing (02.66%). As regard to no participation, processing activities (74.66%), followed by winnowing (62.66%), storing (55.33%), selection of markets (24.66%), selling of produce (22.66%) and grading (19.33%). Overall participation of rural women in farm related activities The data from the table 2 revealed that majority of the rural women had medium extent of participation (68.66%), followed by low extent of participation (17.33%) and high extent of participation (14.00%). Decision making pattern of rural women in farm related activities The farm related activities were categorized into pre-production, production and post production activities. As regard to decision with husband/father/relatives, purchasing of farm land (58.66%), followed by construction of farm building (58.00%), purchase of farm equipment (39.33%) and repairing of farm building (34.66%). As regard to no decision, repairing of farm building (51.33%), followed by purchase of farm building (45.33%), construction of farm building (22.66%) and purchasing of farm land (21.33%). Crop production activities The data from the table 3 revealed that self decision was observed in sowing (48.66%), followed by labour management (44.00%), harvesting (42.00%), application of fertilizers (39.33%), selection of variety (18.66%), selection of crops (18.00%), weeding (16.66%), application of chemicals (11.33%), irrigation (10.66%) and ploughing (10.00%). As regard to decision with husband/father/relatives, weeding (66.66%), followed by selection of variety (64.00%), selection of crops (62.66%), application of fertilizers (36.66%), harvesting (36.66%), labour management (34.66%), sowing (30.00%), application of chemicals (24.00%), irrigation (18.66%) and ploughing (17.33%). 1606 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 Table.1 Distribution of rural women according to their extent of participation in farm related activities Sl. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type of work Extent of participation (n = 150) Full participation Partial No participation Participation A. Pre production activities Purchasing of farm land 64 48 38 (42.60 %) (32.00 %) (25.30 %) Construction of farm building 58 50 42 (38.60 %) (33.33 %) (28.00 %) Repairing of farm building 23 38 89 (15.33 %) (25.33 %) (59.33 %) Purchase of farm equipment 32 43 75 (21.33 %) (28.66 %) (50.00 %) B. Production activities Ploughing 05 28 117 (03.33 %) (18.66 %) (78.00 %) Selection of crops 58 55 37 (38.66 %) (36.66 %) (24.66 %) Selection of variety 65 53 32 (43.33 %) (35.33 %) (21.33 %) Sowing 102 15 33 (68.00 %) (10.00 %) (22.00 %) Irrigation 27 34 (22.66 %) 89 (18.00 %) (59.33 %) Weeding 110 23 17 (73.33%) (15.33 %) (11.33 %) Application of chemicals 15 33 102 (10.00 %) (22.00 %) (68.00 %) Application of fertilizers 99 18 33 (66.00 %) (12.00 %) (22.00 %) Labour management 114 04 32 (76.00 %) (02.66 %) (21.33 %) Harvesting 110 07 33 (73.33 %) (04.66 %) (22.00 %) C. Post production activities Grading 92 29 29 (61.33%) (19.33 %) (19.33 %) Winnowing 52 04 94 (34.66%) (02.66 %) (62.66 %) Processing activities 32 06 112 (21.33%) (04.00 %) (74.66 %) Storing 56 11 83 (37.33%) (07.33 %) (55.33 %) Selection of market 79 34 37 (52.66%) (22.66 %) (24.66 %) Selling of produce 80 36 34 (53.33%) (24.00 %) (22.66 %) 1607 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 Table.2 Overall participation of rural women in farm related activities Sl. No 1 2 3 Category of rural women Low ( up to 11) Medium (12 to 31) High ( above 31) Total Mean = 21 Frequency Percentage 26 103 21 150 17.33 68.66 14.00 100.00 S.D. =10 Table.3 Distribution of rural women according to their extent of decision making in farm related activities Sl. No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Type of work Extent of decision making Self decision Decision with husband/Father/ relatives A. Pre production activities Purchasing of farm land 30 88 (20.00 %) (58.66 %) Construction of farm 29 87 building (19.33 %) (58.00 %) Repairing of farm 21 52 building (14.00 %) (34.66 %) Purchase of farm 23 59 equipment (15.33%) (39.33 %) B. Production activities Ploughing 15 26 (10.00 %) (17.33 %) Selection of crops 27 94 (18.00 %) (62.66 %) Selection of variety 28 96 (18.66 %) (64.00 %) Sowing 73 45 (48.66 %) (30.00 %) Irrigation 16 28 (10.66 %) (18.66%) Weeding 25 100 (16.66 %) (66.66 %) Application of chemicals 17 36 (11.33 %) (24.00 %) Application of fertilizers 59 55 (39.33 %) (36.66 %) Labour management 66 52 (44.00 %) (34.66 %) 1608 No decision 32 (21.33 %) 34 (22.66 %) 77 (51.33 %) 68 (45.33 %) 109 (72.66 %) 29 (19.33 %) 27 (18.00 %) 32 (21.33 %) 106 (70.66 %) 25 (16.66 %) 96 (64.00 %) 36 (24.00 %) 32 (21.33 %) Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 10 Harvesting 1 Grading 2 Winnowing 3 Processing activities 4 Storing 5 Selection of market 6 Selling of produce 63 55 (42.00 %) (36.66 %) C. Post production activities 34 (22.66 %) 10 (06.66 %) 10 (06.66 %) 10 (06.66 %) 28 (18.66 %) 28 (18.66 %) 32 (21.33 %) 77 (51.33 %) 23 (15.33 %) 21 (14.00 %) 23 (15.33 %) 80 (53.33 %) 81 (54.00 %) 39 (26.00 %) 117 (78.00 %) 119 (79.33 %) 117 (78.00 %) 42 (28.00 %) 41 (27.33 %) Table.4 Overall decision making of rural women in farm related activities Sl. No 1 2 3 Category of rural women Low ( up to 6) Medium (7 to 24) High ( above 24) Total Mean = 15.30 Frequency Percentage 22 108 20 150 14.66 72.00 13.33 100.00 S.D. =9.30 As regard to no decision, ploughing (72.66%), followed by irrigation (70.66%), application of chemicals (64.00%), application of fertilizers (24.00%), sowing (21.33%), labour management (21.33%), harvesting (21.33%), selection of crops (19.33%), selection of variety (18.00%) and weeding (16.66%). Post production activities The data from the table 3 revealed that self decision was observed in grading (22.66%), followed by selection of market (18.66%), selling of produce (18.66%), winnowing (06.66%), processing activities (06.66%) and storing (06.66%). As regard to decision with husband/father/relatives, selling of produce (54.00%), followed by selection of market (53.33%), grading (51.33%), winnowing (15.33%), storing (15.33%) and processing activities (14.00%). As regard to no decision, processing activities (79.33%), followed by winnowing (78.00%), storing (78.00%), selection of market (28.00%), selling of produce (27.33%) and grading (26.00%). Overall decision making of rural women in farm related activities The data from the table 4 revealed that majority of the rural women had medium level of decision making (72.00%), followed by low level of decision making (14.66%) and high level of decision making (13.33%). 1609 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2021) 10(03): 1604-1610 It is concluded that majority of the women had full participation in labour management (76.00%), partial participation in selection of crops (36.66%) and no participation in ploughing (78.00%). In case of decision making, majority of the women had self decision in sowing (48.66%), decision with husband/father/relatives in weeding (66.66%) and no decision in processing activities (79.33%). In case of extent of participation and level of decision making, majority of the rural women had medium (68.66%) extent of participation and medium (72.00%) level of decision making in farm related activities. References Aruna Sharma, (2011). Involvement of rural women in farm decision making in bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. MSc. (Ag.) Thesis, CSKHPKV, H.P. Bhairve, R. (2013). A study on women‟s participation and decision-making pattern in agriculture activities in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. MSc. (Ag.) Thesis, JNKVV, Jabalpur, M.P. Geetanjali chouhan. (2016). Participation and decision-making pattern of rural women in agriculture, dairy farming and household activities in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. MSc. (home science) Thesis, SKRAU, Bikaner, Rajasthan. Gondaliya, R. H. (2012). Participation of farm women in decision making process in relation to agriculture activities. MSc. (Ag.) Thesis, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat. Goudappa, S.B., Surekha, S. and Reddy, B.S. (2012). Participation of Farm Women in Decision-Making Process on Agricultural Operations in Yadgir District of Karnataka, Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, 1: 138-141. Jyoti Vishwa Karna. (2019). A study on participation of farm women in agricultural and allied activities in Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh. MSc. (Ag.) Thesis, Institute of Agricultural Science, BHU, U.P. How to cite this article: Vavilala Priyanka, Kalyan Ghadei and Bathini Srishailam. 2021. Participation and Decision Making Pattern of Women in Farm Related Activities in Rural Areas of Telangana. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 10(03): 1604-1610. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2021.1003.201 1610
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