Organizational Leadership

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Organizational Leadership Organizational Leadership and Change Mgt BUS 7340, MPA 6365, and MSL 6310 Apollos University Approved by: AU Curriculum Committee abc McGraw-Hill/Irwin McGraw−Hill Primis ISBN: 0−390−63100−0 Text: Leadership, Fifth Edition Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy This book was printed on recycled paper. Organizational Leadership Copyright ©2006 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. This McGraw−Hill Primis text may include materials submitted to McGraw−Hill for publication by the instructor of this course. The instructor is solely responsible for the editorial content of such materials. 111 ORGLGEN ISBN: 0−390−63100−0 Organizational Leadership Contents Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy • Leadership, Fifth Edition I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position Introduction 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business 2. Interaction between the Leader, the Followers & the Situation II. Focus on the Leader 1 1 2 21 45 Introduction 6. Leadership and Values 7. Leadership Traits 8. Leadership Behavior 45 47 73 114 IV. Focus on the Situation 154 Introduction 11. Characteristics of the Situation 12. Contingency Theories of Leadership 13. Leadership and Change 154 156 188 216 iii Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy: Leadership, Fifth Edition I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2005 Introduction Part 1 Leadership Is a Process, Not a Position Leader Followers Leadership Situation If any single idea is central to this book, it is that leadership is a process, not a position. The entire first part of the book explores that idea. One is not a leader—except perhaps in name only—merely because one holds a title or position. Leadership involves something happening as a result of the interaction between a leader and followers. In Chapter 1 we define leadership and explore its relationship to concepts such as management and followership. We also suggest that better leadership is something for which everyone shares responsibility. In Chapter 2 we discuss how leadership involves complex interactions between the leader, the followers, and the situation they are in. We also present an interactional framework for conceptualizing leadership which becomes an integrating theme throughout the rest of the book. Chapter 3 looks at how we can become better leaders by profiting more fully from our experiences, which is not to say that either the study or the practice of leadership is simple. Part I concludes with a chapter examining basic concepts and methods used in the scientific study of leaders and leadership. 1 2 Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy: Leadership, Fifth Edition Chapter I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2005 1 Leadership Is Everyone’s Business Introduction In the spring of 1972, an airplane flew across the Andes mountains carrying its crew and 40 passengers. Most of the passengers were members of an amateur Uruguayan rugby team en route to a game in Chile. The plane never arrived. It crashed in snow-covered mountains, breaking into several pieces on impact. The main part of the fuselage slid like a toboggan down a steep valley, finally coming to rest in waist-deep snow. Although a number of people died immediately or within a day of the impact, the picture for the 28 survivors was not much better. The fuselage initially offered little protection from the extreme cold, food supplies were scant, and a number of passengers had serious injuries from the crash. Over the next few days, several of the passengers became psychotic and several others died from their injuries. Those passengers who were relatively uninjured set out to do what they could to improve their chances of survival. Several worked on “weatherproofing” the wreckage, others found ways to get water, and those with medical training took care of the injured. Although shaken from the crash, the survivors initially were confident they would be found. These feelings gradually gave way to despair, as search and rescue teams failed to find the wreckage. With the passing of several weeks and no sign of rescue in sight, the remaining passengers decided to mount several expeditions to determine the best way to escape. The most physically fit were chosen to go on the expeditions, as the thin mountain air and the deep snow made the trips extremely taxing. The results of the trips were both frustrating and demoralizing; the expeditionaries determined they were in the middle of the Andes mountains, and walking out to find help was believed to be impossible. Just when the survivors thought nothing worse could possibly happen, an avalanche hit the wreckage and killed several more of them. The remaining survivors concluded they would not be rescued and their only hope was for someone to leave the wreckage and find help. Three of the fittest passengers were chosen for the final expedition, and everyone else’s work was 3 Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy: Leadership, Fifth Edition 4 I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2005 Part One Leadership Is a Process, Not a Position directed toward improving the expedition’s chances of success. The three expeditionaries were given more food and were exempted from routine survival activities; the rest spent most of their energies securing supplies for the trip. Two months after the plane crash, the expeditionaries set out on their final attempt to find help. After hiking for 10 days through some of the most rugged terrain in the world, the expeditionaries stumbled across a group of Chilean peasants tending cattle. One of the expeditionaries stated, “I come from a plane that fell in the mountains. I am Uruguayan . . .” Eventually, 14 other survivors were rescued. When the full account of their survival became known, it was not without controversy. It had required extreme and unsettling measures; the survivors had lived only by eating the flesh of their deceased comrades. Nonetheless, their story is one of the most moving survival dramas of all time, magnificently told by Piers Paul Read in Alive (1974). It is a story of tragedy and courage, and it is a story of leadership. Perhaps a story of survival in the Andes is so far removed from everyday experience that it does not seem to hold any relevant lessons about leadership for you personally. But consider for a moment some of the basic issues the Andes survivors faced: tension between individual and group goals, dealing with the different needs and personalities of group members, and keeping hope alive in the face of adversity. These issues are not so very different from those facing many groups we’re a part of. We can also look at the Andes experience for examples of the emergence of informal leaders in groups. Before the flight, a boy named Parrado was awkward and shy, a “second-stringer” both athletically and socially. Nonetheless, this unlikely hero became the best loved and most respected among the survivors for his courage, optimism, fairness, and emotional support. Persuasiveness in group decision making also was an important part of leadership among the Andes survivors. During the difficult discussions preceding the agonizing decision to survive on the flesh of their deceased comrades, one of the rugby players made his reasoning clear: “I know that if my dead body could help you stay alive, then I would want you to use it. In fact, if I do die and you don’t eat me, then I’ll come back from wherever I am and give you a good kick in the ass” (Read, 1974, p. 77). The Purpose of This Book Few of us will ever be confronted with a leadership challenge as dramatic as that faced by the Andes survivors. We may frequently face, however, opportunities for leadership that involve group dynamics which are just as complex. The purpose of this book is to help you be more effective in leadership situations by helping you better understand the complex challenges of leadership. More specifically, we hope this book will serve as a sort of guide for interpreting leadership theory and research. The book describes and critically evaluates a number of leadership theories and research articles, and also offers practical advice on how to be a better leader. This book is designed to fill the gap between books that provide excellent summaries of leadership research but little practical advice on how to be a better leader and those that are not based on theory or research but primarily offer just one person’s views on how to be a better leader (e.g., “how to” books, memoirs). Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 3 4 Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy: Leadership, Fifth Edition I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2005 Chapter 1 Leadership Is Everyone’s Business 5 Three Leaders One way we will bridge that gap between leadership research and more personalized accounts of leadership will be through personal glimpses of individual leaders. Dozens of different leaders are mentioned illustratively throughout the text, but three particular individuals will be a continuing focus across many chapters. They are Colin Powell, Peter Jackson, and Aung San Suu Kyi. Let us introduce you to them now. Colin Powell Until 2005, Colin Powell has been the United States secretary of state. No African American has ever held a higher position in the U.S. government. He is also a former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest-ranking officer in the U.S. armed forces. He has commanded soldiers, advised presidents, and led a national volunteer movement to improve the future for disadvantaged youth. He is one of the most respected individuals inside or outside of government. We might wonder whether his leadership of a national volunteer movement or the State Department differs in any way from his leadership of his country’s military forces. We might also wonder what there is about him that inspired so many to hope he would run for elective office himself. And we might wonder, was he always a great leader, or did even Colin Powell need to learn a few things along the way? These are some of the questions we will consider ahead. One thing, however, is virtually certain: Colin Powell will continue to exert strong leadership whatever his role. Peter Jackson When Peter Jackson read The Lord of the Rings trilogy at the age of 18, he couldn’t wait until it was made into a movie; 20 years later he made it himself. In 2004 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King took home 11 Academy Awards, winning the Oscar in every category for which it was nominated. This tied the record for the most Oscars ever earned by one motion picture. Such an achievement might seem unlikely for a producer/director whose film debut was titled Bad Taste, which it and subsequent works exemplified in spades. Peter Jackson made horror movies so grisly and revolting that his fans nicknamed him the “Sultan of Splatter.” Nonetheless, his talent was evident to discerning eyes—at least among horror film aficionados. Bad Taste was hailed as a cult classic at the Cannes Film Festival, and horror fans tabbed Jackson as a talent to follow. When screenwriter Costa Botes heard that The Lord of the Rings would be made into a live action film, he thought those responsible were crazy. Prevailing wisdom was that the fantastic and complex trilogy simply could not be The halls of fame are open wide and believably translated onto the screen. But he also they are always full. Some go in by believed that “there was no other director on the door called “push” and some by the door called “pull.” earth who could do it justice” (Botes, 2004). And Stanley Baldwin, do it justice he obviously did. What was it about British prime minister in 1930s the “Sultan of Splatter’s” leadership that gave others such confidence in his ability to make one Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy: Leadership, Fifth Edition 6 I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2005 Part One Leadership Is a Process, Not a Position of the biggest and best movies of all time? What gave him the confidence to even try it? And what made others want to share in his vision? We’ll see. Aung San Suu Kyi In 1991 Suu Kyi already had spent two years under house arrest in Burma for “endangering the state.” That same year she won the Nobel Prize for Peace. Like Nelson Mandela, Suu Kyi stands as an international symbol of heroic and peaceful resistance to government oppression. Until the age of 43, Suu Kyi led a relatively quiet existence in England as a professional working mother. Her life changed dramatically in 1988 when she returned to her native country of Burma to visit her sick mother. That visit occurred during a time of considerable political unrest in Burma. Riot police had recently shot to death hundreds of demonstrators in the capital city of Rangoon (the demonstrators had been protesting government repression!). Over the next several months, police killed nearly 3,000 people who had been protesting government policies. When hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators staged a protest rally at a prominent pagoda in Rangoon, Suu Kyi spoke to the crowd. Overnight she became the leading voice for freedom and democracy in Burma. Today she is the most popular and influential leader in her country even though she’s never held political office. What prepared this woman whose life was once relatively simple and contented to risk her life by challenging an oppressive government? What made her such a magnet for popular support? We’ll examine those and other questions in the chapters ahead. What Is Leadership? The Andes story and the lives of the three leaders we just introduced provide numerous examples of leadership. But just what is leadership? People who do research on leadership actually disagree more than you might think about what leadership really is. Most of this disagreement stems from the fact that leadership is a complex phenomenon involving the leader, the followers, and the situation. Some leadership researchers have focused on the personality, physical traits, or behaviors of the leader; others have studied the relationships between leaders and followers; still others have studied how aspects of the situation affect the ways leaders act. Some have extended the latter viewpoint so far as to suggest there is no such thing as leadership; they argue that organizational successes and failures often get falsely attributed to the leader, but the situation may have a much greater impact on how the organization functions than does any individual, including the leader (Meindl & Remember the difference between a Ehrlich, 1987). boss and a leader: a boss says, Perhaps the best way for you to begin to understand the com“Go!”—a leader says, “Let’s go!” plexities of leadership is to see some of the ways leadership has E. M. Kelly been defined. Leadership researchers have defined leadership in many different ways: 5
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