Kiến tạo luận: Cơ sở lí thuyết và ứng dụng trong giáo dục

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Đánh giá Kiến tạo luận: Cơ sở lí thuyết và ứng dụng trong giáo dục
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S6 12 (242>-2015 NG6N NGC & Bdl S6NG 39 KIEN TAO L U - ^ : CO Sd Li THUYET vA tTNG DyNG TRONG GlAO DyC CONSTRUCTIVISM: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS PH^THUHA (ThS; D9i h^c Ngoyi ngfr, DHQG H i N$i) Abstract: One ofthe key points in defining a modem education quality is learner autonomy that suggests that learners are capable of self-constructing knowledge widi teacher instructions and with self-training on methods of scholarly inquiry. Among various approaches to education, constructivism has the criteria of an adequate and scientific way to train students to be selfeducating, autonomous learners. This literature review with detailed investigation into sources of materials written by a number of scholars will reveal constructivism characteristics, based on which recommendations for educational implications are pointed out. Key words: constructivism; constructivist theoiy; learner-centred. l.Mfrdau Zl.l^s&phdt triin c6a Idin t^U^n Ng&y nay, n^u myc ti€u cua m$t n ^ 0&a d\ic K i ^ t^o lu|n t6n t^i tiir hdng n^iln nfim tru6c hi$n d^i U khuy^ khfch ngu6i hgc tr6 t h ^ vh c6 ngu^ g ^ trong tri^ hpc, sau d6 dun^c &p nhOng ngudi ti^-gido-dvic thl ngudi hgc n€n dugc dyng IrcHig x9 h$i hgc, ddn t$c hgc cQng nhu trang b) v& tgr trang bj dio mlnh khi nSng kien t^o trong tfim If hgc tri nhdn vd ^do dye hgc. M$t s6 k i ^ diutc tDr nhiai nguSn khdc nhau ciing nhu thdnh to ciJa thuy^ kiln t90 iSn d k ti6n dugc dS c^h thiSrc sur dyng c ^ cdng cy hi$n d^ dS md c&) bdi Lfio TOr, Heraciies vd Socrates. Thuy^ rOng, ho tr^r qui trinh tri nh§n k i ^ thite cua ndnh. kim t90 sau dd din phdt triSn vdi sy ddng gdp cOa Nhd d6, hg c6 the trd thiknh nhihig ngudi hgc cdc hgc gid Emanuel Kant, Aidiur Sdic^nhauer thfch n ^ t&t, c6 thS v$n dyng ki^n thiic dui;K; hgc vd dflt doi dinh cao tCr nib sau ciia the kl XX vdi vki c&Xi hoihn cdnh, tlnh huong khdc nhau trong cdc hgc gjd tieu biSu nhu Von Glassfeld Lincoln, cuOc s&ig, cdng v i ^ nhilm bit kjp xutii^hQi Midieal Crot^, Saundos, Jcmassen. nhiip, phdt t r i ^ toto c ^ hda cua thM d^. V i ^ Trudcti&uSocrates (469-390 TCN) thS h i ^ ^ t^o ra mdi tnidng hgc mft d dd c6 sy tuong tdc tudng cOa mlnh vh (bidng hudng d^y hgc biing giQa i^udi d^iy vd ngudi hgc vd gjQa cdc hgc vi&i cdch dgt ia.dio hgc vi6n hdng logt cdu hdi, vd dSn vdi nhau trong vi$c lihh h$i, t^o dyng k i ^ thunc Id dfit nhdm hgc viSn thdo lu$n dS di d ^ k& lu|n v^ ygu dtu can tiii^ nhfim gjiip ngudi hgc Idiai thdc tn^t vkn dk. Sau dd dng chi ra ifing, nhdm hgc t6i da khd nfing ty hgc, sy ty chu ciia mlnh. M0t viin ndy cd tiiS dfi ty djnh hudng gidi ^t\kp cho tiong nhiSng dudng hudng d^y hgc mang^tinh vln de dS n6u t£r trudc dd. M$c dii Sooates giao ti^ cd tfnh tuong hd, cd sy chuy&i doi tir khdng dugc coi Id cha dS dibih t b ^ oia hgc ngudi-tiily-ldm-tmng-^ sang ngu£ri4iQC-ldm- duQ«t k i ^ t^o nhung gim tiiofu ndy dS chihig tnmg-tSm c6 flil dip ilng duvc mvic ti6u niy l i miiih m$t dilu; chinh thio lu^n nli6m l i ylu to gin kit nh|n tfaCic lu|n vdi qui trinh hgc ^ d i ^ duiing hu6ng kiln tfU) li*i. Bii vilt niy t&ig hgp nhOng lu$n dian cit ra tii hing hghln nim tni6c. Trongflidikl d ^ cita ylu cita ki&i tjo luin (hay U fliuyit v l kiln t(io) lich sii phit triln thuylt kiln t90, cic hgc gii Sain nhu: ljch Sli phit triln, cic lo»i Unh kiln tjio lujn, Augustine (khoing giQa nhihu nim 300 sau fliuyit kiln tjio ttong giio diB, cic nguvan U cita C6n^ nguy^X John Locke (fliTki XVn-XVm) m6i tniemg hpc kiln tjo. TCr d6 mOt s i g(>i ^ v l cho ling 11fluiy^vl kiln t«o dugc Mnhfliinhchii vi$c ip dving fliuyit kiln t?o trong giio dvic cOng ylu dvia tlttt kinh n ^ $ m . Emanuel Kant (1724duflcn&jia. 1804) nhin m ^ iing kiln thiic dugc d6c kit dva 1i€n cic phin tich, l|p lu§n vl cic dii tugng. 2. Ting quan v§kiEntfolii|n 40 NG6N NGC & Ddl S6NG hdnh d$ng, vd kinh i ^ $ m cua cd nhfin gji^ sdn sinh ra k i ^ diiic m d i Qud trinh con ngudi t^o dyng kien thOc cOa mlnh dugc di§n gjdi b ^ Morrison (1997) nhu sau: "... Wii chfing ta trdi nghidm m$t diha mdi, chitog ta cd nhan hda diha dd thdng qua kinh n g ^ | m dS cd cOa bdn thdn ho$c dya trSn k i ^ ^urc chiing ta dfi cd trudc dd." Saunders (1992) dong nhin mfinh moi quan h$ giQa kinh n g h i ^ v6n cd ciia con ngudi vdi qud trinh luih hOi kioi thiic mdi. T i ^ nhign, Jonassen (1991) fnEu6n tit httD://www.usash.ca^ dl c ^ d^n vu tid ciia ho^t d^ng tri nh§n trong v i ^ t^o dyng k i ^ &UC mdi. "... K i ^ t^o lu$n dio ring h i ^ tfiyc d u ^ t^o dyi^ bdi ngudi lihh hOi dya tr€n cdc ho^t d$ng tri tu$. Con nguM vila Id ngudi llnh hQi vit& Id ngudi tl^ h i ^ h i ^ thyc ciia hg thdng qua qud trlnh tham gja vdo cdc Ixi^t <^ng tri tu$ dd. Oiling ta nh$n thAc h i ^ thyc Ididch quan theo cdc cdch khdc nhau ^ tr6n trdi n g h i ^ riSng bi^ vd n i ^ tin ciia m5i chiing ta ve hi$n diyc dd." Khai thdc dugc nhthig ^ trung cOa kiln t90 lu§n. Lev Vygotslg', Jean Piaget, John Dewey, Pf^iert vd cdc nhd g ^ dye hgc khdc dfi ho^t dOi^ rit tich cyc nhfim xfiy dyng n ^ mdng cho thuyet kiln tfU) trong gido dye. Ibeo Jean Piaget (1896-1980), hgc Id qud trinh tam If vd nd t§p tiunc vdo khd nfii^ tri nhSn ciia cd nhfin. 6iig cho rfing sy difch n ^ cOa ngudi hgc vdi iugng th&ig tin mdi d b h ^ hda vdi kiln thurc v6n cd trudc dd ciia hg chfnh Id trgng tfim ciia qud ttinh hgc. dng Idling djnh kiln thlic hSt ngu&iti^sy k ^ hop ciia nhQng gJ ngu£ri hgc dfi bilt vd chua bilt Ong ciing nhan mfinh vdo sy tim tdi vd khdm phd kiln diiic mgt cddi chii d$ng, vd d$ng lyc Id ylu t6 tiien chit xdc djnh thdnh cdng ciia ngudi hgc. Lev Vygotsky, ngudi cd ^ tudng cd tim dnh hudng Idn vdi thuylt kiln tfio trong gido dye, cung <& cao khd nfing tri nhfui ciia ngudi hgc. Ong d w i ^ thdng qua v i ^ sir dyng cdc ho^t d$ng gJii nhd m$t cdch dlii d$ng, lirii h o ^ tri em 1^ hlnh tiidnh nh$n thlic, khdi ni$m vd hodn cdnh xfi h^i cd vai trd quan 1r^^ dio qud trinh hgc datyc di&i ra. Sau ndy, Teny Anderscm (1996) djnh nghla kiln t ^ l u ^ Id qud trinh tuong tdc trong d6 gjdo vi€n vd hgc v i ^ ciing phli hgp dl t^o ra y tudng So 12 (242)-2015 min vdi nS lyc ti^ cd hai phfa nhfim ket nli nhQng hilu bilt tnnSc dd vdi kiln thiurc mdi. Cdc nhd kiln tfU) l u ^ khdc nhin mfinh sy cln thi^ thay thl lli dfiy tfaeo hlnh thdc 0u nhd vdi cdc ho^t d$ng khdc cd myc dfch ban, t^o co h$i cho ngucri hgc ty kiln t^o kiln thiic cho mhih khi ^ q i ^ vin dl, tiiay Ihl tiidi hgc v ^ vdi cdc bdi hgc cd ^ n^iia, thay thl nhQng hudng dSn tryc tilp bfing cddi hgc Ididng dp d ^ vd nhin m^nh sy Idln ^ k i ^ d i ^ hon Id sy diuyln doi Idln t h ^ . (IranNejad, 1995). ZZ Cdc lofd hinh kiin t^ lupt Lf tiiuy^ ve kiln t^o daiyc dda tiidnh cdc tofd Mnh nhu: kiln tfu lu$n tri nh$n, kiln t^o lu$n clp tiln, kiln tfu) lu$n xfi h$i, vd I d ^ tfU) lu§n vfin h6a (Tricia Ryan, 2002). Thu nheO, fden tgo Itidn tri nhgrv K i ^ t^o lu§n tri n ^ datjc n€u ra trudc ti€n bin Jean Piaget, i^udi ti&i [diong vl If tiiuylt kiln tfio. 6ng cho ring "tri thdc Aigc chu d$ng t^o ra bdi i^ydi hgc nhung mai^ tfndi bj dgng tilp nh$n tilr mdi trudng". Vdi quan £ l m ndy, kiln t ^ luin tri nh§n till h i ^ nhQng ^ tudng dan gidn n h ^ vd Asiyc coi Id goc rS cda cdc nhdnh If t h i ^ ^ vl Idln t^o lu$n. Martin Dougiamas (1998) dfi cy till hda if (h\xyk ndy khi cho rfing kiln tfio Iu$n tri n h ^ tdc d$ng vdi cdc lo^i kiln t^o lu|n khdc tfio ra Ioai hlnh giao dep don gidn dudi dfuig chuyin doi tiidng tin td ngudi ndy din ngudi Ida. X ^ v^ (diuang d i ^ ndy Ihl kiln thdc von cd ciia ngufri hgc Id dilu toi cln tiult dl ngudi hgc cd till dni d$ng ]dha t90 n&l kioi tiiiic mdi. Thr hai, kiin tgo lugn c^ tiin: Kiln t^o lu$n clp tiln cho rfing tri tilde Id qud trinh tri nh$n ty tl dtiic ciia 1 ^ ngudi. Dd Id cpid trinh clu tnic kiln thdc hon Id mQt qud trinb bi&i so^n cdc dft li^ tiieo lli kinh nghi|m. Td dd cd till fliiy ifing, is mlic d$ ndo dd, kien thdc phdn dnh A i ^ tbih xdc tiiyc ciia bdn till hgc. (Nguftn: Wikipedia Free Encyclopet^). 'IMba,hen tgo lugn xdh^UYiyhnX^hi^ySi hgi dugc hlnh tiidnh dya trgn quan dilm qud triidi hgc ciia m ^ cd nhdn khong tdch rdi bli cdnh xl hOi ( V y g o ^ , 1978). Cdc hgc gid cda tiiuylt n ^ nhin m^nh sy tuong ^ giQa xfi hOi vdi qud trlnh hgc cda cd nhdn; vd iSng tri tu$ con ngudi kh6ng ( ^ t ^ tfu trcxig vd nfio md c£si tin tfu tiong hdnh So 12 (242)-201S NG6N NGC* & Btfi S6NG vi xfi h$i. Maitin Dougiamas (1998) chi ra ba d^ng cua sy tuong hS ndy, dd Id: Thtf tw, kien tgo ludn vdn hoa: Vugt ra ngodi bli cdnh xfi hgi ciia qud trinh hgc Id bli cdnh r$ng hon ciia cdc dnh hudng vfin hda glm phong tyc, t ^ qudn, ton gjdo, x3 hOi hgc, cdng cy vd n ^ n ngQ. Vosniadou (1996) chl la ifing "... m§t nh$n tilde mdi, <^i vdi m$t cd nhfin- imidi xd If thdng tin, dfi phdt tiiln m$t b@ tiling tin tfu blnh dfing trong ndo ngudi vd trong cdc cdng cy, h$ thing bilu d ^ nhfim gn X\%\xflid"dl tilp nh$n kiln tilde mdi. Ngudi hgc sg tdi thilt l$p clu tnic tri nh§n dd Idii thdng tin ho$c kiln Ihiic mdi cd mli Ugn hQ vdi kiln tiidc dfi tin t^itixmgtif nhd ciia ntinfa. NhQng suy lugn, cdc chi tilt hay mli quan -faQ gjQa tii flidc cQ vd kiln flidc mdi mang tfnh cd nhfin hda vd fagp thdnh till thing nhit hihi hiQu trong bg nbd cda nguM hgc. NhQng tfadng tin, sy kiQn mang tinfa gfai nfad mdy mdc vd khdng cd moi lign hQ vdi kiln tiidc nen cua ngu£n hgc s5 nhanh chdng bj Ifing qugn. h. Qud trinh hgc la chu dgng. Dewey (1996) cho ring hgc vign Id ngudi t^o ra kiln thdc cho dihih mlnh. Ngudi hgc chu ^ n g tiiam gia vdo qud trinh xd If kiln flidc khi da(?c ^ vdo tinfa hulng hgc t§p mdi, ngfaiia id: hg dp dyi^ vln hieu bilt h i ^ tfli ciia ntinfa, chu ^ den cdc ylu t l tuong dng trong tidi nghiQm hgc mdi, ddnh gid thifa bin vting cda kiln thiic nin vd kiln tiidc mdi vd dya vdoddhgcdtiiltdiclutidcfaQ tiling kiln flidc ciia mlnh. Gido vien ddng vm trd Id ngudi dieu hdnh, hudng d§n nhimg cung tfio ca hQi cho sinh vi&i thyc hdnh, d$t cfiu hdi vd thd nghiQm. Cdc hofit dQng hgc h < ^ todn kfaai thdc sy tham gia ctia hgc viea Quan ti:gng hon, nd t^o co hQi cho t^iudi hgc pfadn hoi vd diln thuylt vl cdc hoftf: dQng ciia ntinfa. Hgc vign ciing Id ngudi quylt ^tih myc tieu hgc tip cua mlnh ciing nfau pfauong tilde ddnh gid mdn hgc. c. Qud trinh hgc mang ta^ c0ng tdc. Tfnh cQng tdc 1^ d$c d i ^ ridng biQt cua Idp hgc kiln t^o md d dd hgc vidn cQng tdc, Idm v i ^ tiieo nhdm vd bgc hdi Iln nhau. Bfing cdch ndy, khi hgc vien tiiam dtilu vdo qud trinh hgc ciia mlnh fag cd thl ty rut ra cdc cfailn lugc vd phuong phdp hgchiQuqud. d Qud trinh hgc dtfa trSn vi4c luon nglu vSt. Trong dudng hudi^ kiln tfU) l u ^ tiii bo^t dQng 42 N G 6 N N G C & B(n ndy tuot^ dng v6i Id nfing gjdi q i ^ vln dl. Pfauong pfa^ n ^ vln n g ^ Id d$t ra cdc cfiu hdi, kilm c^iih mQt dli tugng vd sd dyng cdc nguin khdc nhau nfalm tim ra gim pfa^ cfao mQt vln (^. Qud trinfafagctheo phuong p h ^ ndy 1 ^ diu vdi viQc khai tiidc chd dl, dua ra k k lu|Ui, l$t l^i kit lufii, rii quay l^i td diu vd cd till tilp tyc tdi ldu tim dugc [diuong thiic gjdi q i ^ vln dl. e. Qud trinh hgc mat^ tlnh tham cMeu. Trong Aidng hudi^ k i ^ t^o hign, ngudi hgc phdi chiu tiddi nhlQm cho qud trinh hgc cda ndnh vd tfaudng xuygn tham chilu vd tich 1 ^ kmh n g j i i ^ cho difnfa ntinh. Gido vien h3 trg qud tthih hgc ciia hgc vien l ^ g cddi t^ ra tlnh hulng sao dio hgc vi€n cd thl tiiam gja d|t cdu hdi vd tiiam diilu vdo qud trinh hgc ciia mlnh. Cdc ho^t dQng ludn khuyoi Idtich hgc vi&i so sdnh, dli diilu cdc dQ liQu kiln tiidc vdfagcv i ^ cd till tiiodi m ^ ngu quan dilm cua mlnh vl ngi dung hgc vd phuong idi^fagc. B€n cfuih nhQng nguym If t i ^ ciia mdi trudng fagc k i ^ t^o, Dewey (1996) b l sung < ^ (film nOa Id: qud trinfa hgc cd tfnh tfaiic diy, vd qud trinh hgc, x6t tt€n khfa c^nh ndo dd, gLdn tiep mang tinh xfifaQi.Tuong ty nhu till, Huitt,W. (2003) dua ra brai tiidnh to cua kioi t^o lu$n trong bli cdnh su [di^m, dd Id (1) qud trlnh fagc lly ngudi hgc Idm trung tfim; (2) qud trinh hgc Id mai^ tfnh ng^ vln chu dQng (3) qud Irinh hgc vfia mang tfnh cd nhfin vilra mang thtii c ^ tdc; (4) qud tiinh hgc Id qud trinfa gjdi qiQ^ cdc vln de vd hiQn tugng. Vid trd cua ngudi gido viin: Rit nhilu franh l u ^ dfi dugc cdc hgc g ^ doA ra nhfim so sdnh vm trd ciia ngudi gjdo v i ^ truyln t b ^ vdi vai did cua ngudi gido vidn kiln t^o nhfim chdng minh r l i ^ dfi cd sy chuy^ biln <^ng kl trong viQc nguCn gjdo vi&i ti^ [diong trong pfauong phdp dfiy vd bgc mang tfnh nhfin vfin h i ^ qud hon. Trong ldp hgc t n ^ ^ thing, n g i ^ ^do vign thl hiQn nhieu vai trd Ididc nhau md d i ^ Itinh Id "ngudi duy nhit cung c ^ kiraifliiicvd ngudi diza ra quylt djnh" (Lev Vygotsky, 1978; Martin Dougiamas, 1998; Vdn. R V , 2000). Vdi vai tid tiid nhit, gido vidn, trcmg tion flidc cda hgc vi&i, Id nguin cung c ^ kiln flidc duy nhit, vd nhQng ^ hg tmyln ^ ludn Id dilu khdng thl nghi vmi S6NG S I 12 (242)-2015 dugc;. Chdng ta cd thl chfic difin dfi tiily digc k& qud cua hlnh tiiiic ^do dye ndy Id nhQng sinh vi&i i^u nfaOng c5 mdy vdi Idid nfing hodn hdo vl ^ nhd, fall tudng vd mdy mdc dp dyng nfaQng gj (g daxjc hgc. W&i vm trd thd hai, gido vign Id ngu^ qiQ^ C^nb vl nQi dung vd [diuong [didp gidng d ^ . D ^ cd thl Aigc xem nhu mQt phuong ph^ khbng th§t sy Idioa hgc nlu nin gido dye dia didng ta nhfim hudng tdi sdn phim Id nhQng am ngudi ty-gido-dyc. Dli 1 ^ vdi ngudi gjdo v i ^ tiuy^ t h ^ ngufri gido vi&i k i ^ t^o till fai^ vai trd dia ngudi dilu phli qud triitii hgc, n g ^ hgc, nguM n ^ g n cdu vd ngudi tiiam ^ vho ho^t d ^ hpc. (Lev Vy^itsky, 1978; Maitin Dougjaroas, 1998; Tricia Ryan, 2002; Vfin, H.V, 2000). Trong vai trd Id ngudi (Ulu [i^i, gjdo ri&i gidp qud trinh trao dli thdng tin giQa cdc hgc viSn dien ra sudn sd. Khi ddm n h ^ vm trd ndy, gido vign cd till (1) pitp bdnflifingido v i ^ \aea dugc mong m u ^ ti&n nSi^ cda hgc vien, nhd dd c6 thl thiy rd hem nhu clu, dam mg vd khd nfing cua fagc vign; (2) gji^ hgc vidn bdy ^ nfaQng van d^ cung nhu mong muon cd nfafin, td dd c6 cdch fli& titich hgp dl ho trg hgc vign khai tiidc tli datiltf nfing ciia mlnh; (3) (^nh hudng dl hgc vign tium gia ticfa cyc vdo nhQng ^ mang Ifii Igi fch t&k dio qud trhih hgc cda hg. Trong vai trd tiid tuu, ^do vign tiiam gja tich cyc vdo cdc hoat dQng I6p hgc vd ddng gdp ^ tudng, quan mxn vd tr^ n g ^ ^ ciia chhih mlnh. Vdi vai trd tiid ba, gido vign Id nguifri quan sdt vd ngudi fagc. Trong Idii tiiam gja cdc ho^t dQng ndy, gido vign cd tiie i $ ntinh vdo vj till n g i ^ hgc, chu y d ^ nhQng ld)6 khfin cua hgc v i ^ vd dua ra tiv g j i ^ n ^ cln. Vti vai trd ngu£ri ngju^ cdu, ngudi gjdo vidn d6ng gdp kiln tilde ciia ntinh tt^ [diuoi^ diQn n^ii&i cdu vl bdn chit cda qud tiinh d^y vd hgc. Do d6, £eu ndy g j ^ ngufri ^do vioi lihh hQi dugc j niQm nQi tfi cda qud trinh d^y vd qud tiiidi hgc B hai qud tiinh gin kit vdi nhau, vd hodn cdnh, tidi i ^ Q m cQng nhu kiln thdc cda hgc vito Id c&; yeu t l tign quylt trcmg viQc xdc < ^ dugc Alu ^ dang fliyc sy di& ra tiong ldp fagc. Tdm Ifi, vai trd ciia ngudi gido vign k i ^ tfO li tfo ra bli cdnh hgc t ^ md d dd ngudi hgc dugc tiiong tdc vdi cdc ho^t dQng cd ^ nghlk, cdc ho^t s l 12 (242>-2015 NG6N NGC & Ddl S6NG d ^ lly ngudi hgc ldm tiung tdm, qua dd kfauy^ khfch, dilu i ^ i mid trinh hgc. Td nhQng ^ (tilm trgn cd thl thay i^udi gido vito k i ^ ^ dfi t90 ra sy chuyin b i ^ (ting kl trong chit higng dfiy vd hgc. Vai trd cOa ngudi hgc: Dudng hudng t r u ^ thong trong gjdo dye dfi t^o ra lirai gjd d}nh ring ngudi hgc chl Id nhQng nguM tilp nhQn thy dQt^ cda qud trinh hgc. Hg cd it kilm sodt v l viQc hgc cda mlnh vd ft cd co hQi bdy td quan dilm ciia minh ve viQc d$y nQi dui^ g^ vd d^y nhu thl ndo. Hg don fliuin chl thy t^ng ngoi r^jie tiuyin dft kiln tilde h o ^ dmjc ddo tfo flieo loi mdn von cd. Tuy nhidn, dilu ndy khdng cdn ^ n tfu trong dudng faudng kiln tfU) nOa. Ngudi hgc ti:d thdnh tnmg tfim cda cdc hofit <^i^ dfiy vd hgc vdi nfau clu cd nfafin, mong muln, trdi ngjuQm, kiln flidc nin... ldm tigng tfim. Ngudi hgc gjd day thl h i ^ nhilu vai trd hodn todn mdi. 43 mlnh. ViQc dfy vd viQc hgc cd sy tuong tdc giQa ^do vito vdi hgc vidn. vl till diln ra d cd hai ni$t, mft kia Id nin mdng, co sd cfao m$t ndy pfadt tiioL Mhi quan hQ tuong h3 ndy mang lfl hiQu qud nhilu hon cho qud binh dfy vd hgc. 3. M^t s6 ihig i^Bg ciia tiiuy^ kien tfo trong E ^ d f c % i ^ phdt ti^ nhQn fliiic luto vl kiln tfo luto trong triet hgc, cdc hgc gjd, cdc nhd gjdo dye dfi hhih tiidnh; md tii, [didt triln tiiuylt k i ^ t f o tiong gido dye. Cd till ndi kiln tfo luto d dfng bdn the hgc Id CO sd, nen mdng cfao nhthig iing c ^ g ciia thuylt kiln tfo trong gido dye. MQt so tdc dQng cda kito tfo luto trong gido dye phdi kl din Id chucmg trinh gidng dfy vd phuong ph&p idlm tia ddnh gjd. Jonassen (1991) vd Hodng Vfin Vfin (1999) dfi md td tdc dQng ciia kiln tfo luto Ito sy [didt tiiln cda diuong trinh ^dng dfy, thi^ kl de cucmg mdn hgc. hudng din ddo tfo vd pfaucrng Tiudc hit, nguM hgc tird tiidnh ngudi ddm [ d i ^ Idlm tra ddnh ^ [didn dio qud trinh hgc (Campbell vd Kiywezka, Ibeo Hodng Vfin Vfin (1999X kiln tfo luto dl 1992). I ^ cd quyln tiido luQn vdi ^do vito vl nQi xult sy lofu bd cda chucmg trinh gjdng dfy dugc dung hgc vd phucmg p h ^ gjdng dfiy cung nhu fliilt lip sin cd. Uiay vdo dd, nd kfai^^ khfch cdc budc triln khai mdn hgc. Bto cfudi dd, i^;udi cdc diucmg tiinh gidng dfy md d dd imudi hgc hgc khdng ngdng (filu chlnh myc tito hgc tf^ ciia diigc Idm ([uen vdi kien tiiiic nin vd long ghdp ndnh vd bodn thdnh nhQng nhiQm vy dugc gjao trong dd Id Id nfing gidi quylt cdc vln dl thyc tl. tiieo cddi khai tiidc cda ritog ntinfa. Tbeo cdch X ^ vllnft xfiy dyng chuong trinh gjdi^ dfy, ndy titi bgc vidn ludn phdi hgc cdch Idm viQc tiieo Hodng Win Vto (1999) cdiia tiidnh bai clp dQ Id nhdm. ^ m phdn vdi cdc thdnh vidn Ididc dl dft clp dQ vi md vd c ^ dg vT md. Theo dng. i^;u£ri dugc sy thing nhit cho nhitoi vy dugc giao. Thit fagc ddng vm trd trung tfim trong qud trinh dfy vd hai Id, ngudi hgc ddng vai trd Id ngudi fliam gia hoc. vi v|ly bit cd mQt qiQ'lt djnh ndo lien quan qud trinh dfy vd hgc cQng tdc. Hg cung cap cho doi nQi (kuig ^jdng dfy vd [diuong p h ^ gjtog gjdo vito thdng tin hQu hiQu vd xdc thye, d^a vdo day diu phdi bdt nguin td ngudi hgc. Cy the Id, d dd gido vito cd till cd nhQng ddnh ^ d diuIn vl cap dQ \T md (chucmg tiinh gidng dfy). hQ tiling viQc dfy cdi g^ vd dfy nhu till ndo. Thit ba Id, mdn hgc nto Aigc da dfng hda vd linb lK)ft sao i^udi hgc cln quen vdi hm vm ti^d quan trgng dio ngudi fagc cd flil cd nhilu lya cdign hem cho khdc nQa, dd Id: Id ngudi dilu phli qud tiinh ty mdn hgc minb ygu flifch. d c ^ dQ vi md (dl hgc vd la ngu£ri [Mn hii cho gido vign vd nhQng cuong mdn hgc). kiln tfo luto AK hito ^ ^ i ^ hgc vito khdc. (Tudor, 1993; Nunan, 1988; Vfin, mdt Id: tiult kl mdn hgc cln ding nhat vdi cdc aV,2000). kien thdc tfayc tl; hai Id: dl cuong mdn hgc cd thl dugc xem nhu "qud trinh ddm phto" gjQa ^do Cd till ndi, dudng hudng kim tfO lu§n dfi md vito vd hgc vito vl nQi dung vd phucmg phdp ra sy tfiay dli ddng ih tiong vai tid cda gido vign gitog dfy. ^ vd bgc vito. Vdi nhQng ddng gdp ciia ngudi gido vito kj4i tfo trcmg vai tid Id ngufri hudng din, X ^ vl ni$t hudng din trong Idp hgc, nhfhig dilu phli. cQng tdc cClng ngudi hgc, hgc vign chfic nhd gjdo dye kiln tfo t|lp tiimg vdo viQc tfo ra hfin sg cdm tiuiy W tin hem, dugc truy^ nhiQt nhfhig k ^ nli vdi tiiyc tiln vd khifln khfch huy^ vd c6 trdch nhiQm hon vi^ viQc hgc cda nhdng hieu bilt mdi d ngufri hgc. NguM hudng 44 N G d N N G C & Bin din dieu ehlnfa phucmg phdp gjdng d ^ nhim ddp di^ phto hoi td hgc vign vd khuyen khfch hg pfato tich, xd If vd dy doto tfadng tin. MQt trong nhQng phuang p h ^ gido vidn cd tfai dp dyng Id d$t ra cdc cfiu hdi md, dilu tilt cto nhdm thdo luto trong Idp. Cung tfaeo Hodng Vto Vto (1999), phuang phdp kiem tra ddnh gid theo dudng hwtog kiln tfo If tudng Id khdng tin tfi dilm s l vd cto bdi Idlm tra tfaeo tieu cfauin djnh sto. Trong trudng hgp lli kilm tra tiuyin thing vdi biit vd g i ^ vto dp dyng titi cQng cd vdi ggi ^ cho mQt so hhih thdc ddnh gid nhu thuylt trinh nhdm, bdi t$p nbdm, bdi tfp cd nhto tfaeo tuyln t|p, t|ip san, bdo cdo. v.v. Tuy nfaito. gito due vln Id mQt ngdnh da hgc thuft, ctoh ^ t nhit dl do dugc viQc hge Id ldm dio kilm tra ddnh gid tid thdnh phin nQi tfi Ididng till tiiilu cda qud trinh hgc vdi ddm bdo ring nd Id kdnh tfadng tin cung clp cho ngudi hgc chit Iugng hgc cda mhih, td dd hg cd thl ty ddnh gid sy tiln bQ cda bto thto. 4. K i t l u i n Qua bdi nghito cdu ting quan v l kiln tfo luto ndy cd thl thiy If tiiuylt v l kiln tfo bfit nguin td trilt hge, trdi qua cto gjai dofn pfadt triln dfi dft din ctinh cao cda tmn dnh hudng trong ^ t o dye. Gid trj cda kiln tfo luto v3n vQng ben trong nin gido dye hito <^) n ^ y nay trong viQc tto dQng tfch cyc din qud trhih day vd hgc. N I U myc tidu, dQng lyc ciia mgt n ^ gito dye chit lugng, hiQn dfi Id ddo tfo ndn nhQng con ngudi cd khd ntog ty kiln tfo kiln thirc. ty chd vdi viQe hgc cda mlnh thl dilc fain dudng hudng lly ngudi hgc Idm trung tdm Id ddng gdp quan trgng nhit cda kiln tfo luto* NhQng d^ dilm ritog. clp tiln cda kiln tfo luto <^ chiing td vl sao H thuylt kiln tfo Ifi vugt trQi hon cto dudng hudng, phuong phdp dfv vd hgc truyln thing khto. Dilu ndy gdp phan md ra pfauong hudng mdi cung nhu nhOng thd thdch cho gjto vien, hgc vign, cto nhd quto If, cto nfad cfafnh stoh khi dp dyng nguyen If ciia kiln tfo luto tiong gjto dye. T A I L I | : U THAM KHAO C H I N H 1. Anderson, T. (1996), What in the world is constructivism? Learning 24(5). pp. 48-51. S6NG So 12 (242)-201S 2. Campbell, C. and Kiyswezka, H. (1992X Learner-based teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3. Cole. M. & Wertsch, J. V. (1996), Beyond the individual-social cmtimony m discussion of Piaget and Vygotsky. Human Development, 39, pp 250-256. 4. Iran-Nejad, A. (1995), Constructivism as substitute far memorization in leaming: Meaning is created by learner. Education 116(1). pp. 16-31. 5. Nunan, D. (1988), The learner-centred curricidttm. Cambridge: Cambridge Universi^ Press. 6. Tricia Ryan (2002), Using information effectivelyjn edttcation. Fall 7. Tudor, I. (1993), Teacher roles in the learner-centred classroom. ELT Joumal. Vol 47/1 8. Van, a V . (1999), The role of the teacher in the learner-centred approach. Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 9. Van, H.V. (2000), Leamer-centredness in foreign Janguage leaming. Vietnam National University, Hanoi, (pp. 25-33) 10. Vosniadou, S. (1996), Towards a revised cognitive psychology for new advances in leaming md mstruction. Leaming and Instruction 6, pp. 95-109. 11. Vygotsky. L. S. (1978), Afinrf/nsocJeO'. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 12. wyw.constTuctivism 123 .com/Mahoney/ home.html 13. http://www.funderstandinp.coin/constni ctivism.cfm 14. http: //www.mandsts.org 15. http://www.usash.ca 16. Dewev (\996\. Retrieved tiom http://www.exploratimuni.edu/ifi/resourofeg/con8 tructivistleaminf:;.h^1 17. Jonassen f 1991t Retrieved fiom http://www.usasfa.ea 18. aitin Dougiamas (1998). Ajovney to constructivism. Retrievedfromhttp://www.dougiamfl-s.com 13
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