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ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING Edited by Melih Günay Eco-Friendly Textile Dyeing and Finishing Edited by Melih Günay Contributors Bojana Voncina, George Z. Kyzas, Nikolaos Lazaridis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Margaritis Kostoglou, Marija Gorjanc, Marija Gorenšek, Petar Jovančić, Miran Mozetič, Chaoxia Wang, Yunjie Yin, Riza Atav, Shahidi, Farah Chequer, Gisele Oliveira, Maria Valnice Zanoni, Danielle Palma De Oliveira, Juliano Cardoso, Elisa Ferraz, Heba Farouk Mansour, Dimitris Kekos, Styliani Kalantzi, Diomi Mamma Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2013 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. Notice Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published chapters. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book. Publishing Process Manager Iva Simcic Technical Editor InTech DTP team Cover InTech Design team First published January, 2013 Printed in Croatia A free online edition of this book is available at Additional hard copies can be obtained from Eco-Friendly Textile Dyeing and Finishing , Edited by Melih Günay p. cm. ISBN 978-953-51-0892-4 free online editions of InTech Books and Journals can be found at Contents Preface VII Section 1 Advances in Dyeing Chemistry and Processes 1 Chapter 1 Multifunctional Textiles – Modification by Plasma, Dyeing and Nanoparticles 3 Marija Gorjanc, Marija Gorenšek, Petar Jovančić and Miran Mozetič Chapter 2 Surface Modification Methods for Improving the Dyeability of Textile Fabrics 33 Sheila Shahidi, Jakub Wiener and Mahmood Ghoranneviss Chapter 3 Cyclodextrins in Textile Finishing 53 Bojana Voncina and Vera Vivod Chapter 4 Preparation, Characterization and Application of Ultra-Fine Modified Pigment in Textile Dyeing 77 Chaoxia Wang and Yunjie Yin Chapter 5 The Use of New Technologies in Dyeing of Proteinous Fibers 103 Rıza Atav Section 2 The Dyeing and Environment 149 Chapter 6 Textile Dyes: Dyeing Process and Environmental Impact 151 Farah Maria Drumond Chequer, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Elisa Raquel Anastácio Ferraz, Juliano Carvalho Cardoso, Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni and Danielle Palma de Oliveira VI Contents Chapter 7 Decolorization of Dyeing Wastewater Using Polymeric Absorbents - An Overview 177 George Z. Kyzas, Margaritis Kostoglou, Nikolaos K. Lazaridis and Dimitrios N. Bikiaris Chapter 8 Textile Dyeing: Environmental Friendly Osage Orange Extract on Protein Fabrics 207 Heba Mansour Chapter 9 Physichochemical and Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Silk Fabrics Degummed by Enzymes 233 Styliani Kalantzi, Diomi Mamma and Dimitris Kekos Preface Initially the sole purpose of dyeing was to color textile substrates for fancy fabric appearan‐ ces. Although, this was an impressive achievement at the time, the competitive challenges began to drive the development of highly functional fibers and substrates through advanced dyeing and finishing processes for higher added value in applications of; membrane filtra‐ tion, coatings, composites, microelectronic devices, thin-film technology, super absorbency, antimicrobial materials, biocides and insecticides, flame reterdancy, improved reactivity and numerous others. Polymeric fibers that are mechanically strong, chemically stable, and easy to process often have inert surfaces which makes them not suitable for these advanced applications. Conse‐ quently, there has been significant number of studies that focuses on enhancing the chemi‐ cal, biological, physical, optical and dyeability properties of fibers without negatively effect‐ ing their mechanical and most desired properties. Among the techniques, perhaps the plas‐ ma treatment is one of the most investigated. Also, Cyclodextrins which can act as hosts and form inclusion compounds with various small molecules to provide certain desired attrib‐ utes may be applied to textile substrates as reagent during the finishing processes. The ma‐ jority of these studies often involve a) the embedding of novel nanoparticles for adding unique features to textiles, b) uniformly maximizing the loading capacity of textile sub‐ strates to improve nanoparticle adsorption for optimal surface property. While for the purpose of coloration only natural dyes were used initially. Due to limitations in coloration and with the invent of synthetic fibers, natural dyes are mostly replaced with dyes themselves are either chemically hazardous or require auxiliary chemicals that are not good for the environment. At the beginning, we were not as concerned of the damage caused by dyeing to the environment. However over time as we come to understand that our being healthy and well being also depends on our environment, we have been increas‐ ingly paying attention to reduce our footprint on our ecosystem. In particular for dyeing of textiles, the efforts primarily focuses on reducing the water consumption, using of natural dyes or less harmful dyes and chemicals, right-first-time dyeing, the development of an ef‐ fective degumming process based on enzymes as active agents , dyeing and energy optimi‐ zation and development of advanced waste water treatment processes. In recent years, many attempts have also been made to improve various aspects of dyeing by the introduc‐ tion and advancement of new technologies that used ultrasound, ultraviolet, ozone, plasma, microwave, gamma irradiation, laser, supercritical carbondioxide. VIII Preface Consequently, as market forces demand unique and sophisticated products from the textile industry, recent research has been focused on the development of technologies for function‐ al textiles some of which implemented advanced finishing and dyeing techniques. Mean‐ time, the local governments and regulators also require the textile industry to become more environment friendly in their operations. Hence, this book aims to present the cutting edge research in both areas to advance the knowledge in this field. Dr. Melih Günay HueMetrix Inc. NC, USA Section 1 Advances in Dyeing Chemistry and Processes
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