Britannica Discovery Library: Remarkable People in History

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® Br ca itanni LEARNING L I B R A R Y Remarkable People in History Learn about famous lives from different times and places CHICAGO LONDON NEW DELHI PARIS SEOUL SYDNEY TAIPEI TOKYO PROJECT TEAM Judith West, Editorial Project Manager Christopher Eaton, Editor and Educational Consultant Kathryn Harper, U.K. Editorial Consultant Marilyn L. Barton, Senior Production Coordinator Editors Theodore Pappas Anthony L. Green Mary Rose McCudden Andrea R. Field Michael J. Anderson Colin Murphy Locke Petersheim Indu Ramchandani (Encyclopædia Britannica India) Bhavana Nair (India) Rashi Jain (India) Design and Media Specialists Nancy Donohue Canfield, Design Megan Newton-Abrams, Design Karen Koblik, Photos Joseph Taylor, Illustrations Amy Ning, Illustrations Jerry A. Kraus, Illustrations Michael Nutter, Maps Copy Editors Barbara Whitney Laura R. Gabler Dennis Skord Lisa Braucher, Data Editor Paul Cranmer, Indexer ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA PROJECT SUPPORT TEAM EDITORIAL Linda Berris Robert Curley Brian Duignan Kathleen Kuiper Kenneth Pletcher Jeffrey Wallenfeldt Anita Wolff Charles Cegielski Mark Domke Michael Frassetto James Hennelly Sherman Hollar Michael R. Hynes Sandra Langeneckert Gene O. Larson Michael I. Levy Robert Lewis Tom Michael Janet Moredock DESIGN Steven N. Kapusta Carol A. Gaines Cate Nichols ART Kathy Nakamura Kristine A. Strom Nadia C. Venegas ILLUSTRATION David Alexovich Christine McCabe Thomas Spanos MEDIA ASSET MANAGEMENT Jeannine Deubel Kimberly L. Cleary Kurt Heintz Quanah Humphreys COPY Sylvia Wallace Jennifer F. Gierat Glenn Jenne Mary Kasprzak Thad King Larry Kowalski Joan Lackowski Dawn McHugh Julian Ronning Chrystal Schmit Sarah Waterman INFORMATION MANAGEMENT/ INDEXING Carmen-Maria Hetrea Edward Paul Moragne Marco Sampaolo Sheila Vasich Mansur G. Abdullah Keith DeWeese Catherine Keich Stephen Seddon EDITORIAL TECHNOLOGIES Steven Bosco Gavin Chiu Bruce Walters Mark Wiechec COMPOSITION TECHNOLOGY Mel Stagner MANUFACTURING Dennis Flaherty Kim Gerber INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Leah Mansoor Isabella Saccà ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, INC. Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board Jorge Aguilar-Cauz, President Michael Ross, Senior Vice President, Corporate Development Dale H. Hoiberg, Senior Vice President and Editor Marsha Mackenzie, Managing Editor and Director of Production © 2008 BY ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, INC. Cover photos (front): Brooks Kraft/Corbis Sygma; (back): Kennan Ward/Corbis. Cover insert photos (left): Bettmann/Corbis; (center): Gavin Wickham—Eye Ubiquitous/Corbis; (right): Anne Frank House, Amsterdam and Anne Frank-Fonds, Basel—Hulton/Archive by Getty Images International Standard Book Number: 978-1-59339-510-0 No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. BRITANNICA LEARNING LIBRARY: REMARKABLE PEOPLE IN HISTORY 2008 Britannica.com may be accessed on the Internet at http://www.britannica.com. (Trademark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.) Printed in U.S.A. Remarkable People in History I N T R O D U C T I O N Who is known as the Father of Europe? What did Tenzing Norgay climb? How did Cleopatra die? Why did Gandhi march to the sea? Remarkable People in History, you’ll In To help you on your journey, we’ve provided the following guideposts in Remarkable People in History : ■ Subject Tabs—The colored box in the upper corner of each right-hand page will quickly tell you the article subject. discover answers to these ■ Search Lights—Try these mini-quizzes before and after you read the questions and many more. article and see how much—and how quickly—you can learn. You can even Through pictures, articles, and fun facts, you’ll learn about extraordinary people make this a game with a reading partner. (Answers are upside down at the bottom of one of the pages.) ■ Did You Know?—Check out these fun facts about the article subject. With these surprising “factoids,” you can entertain your friends, impress who have changed the your teachers, and amaze your parents. course of history. ■ Picture Captions—Read the captions that go with the photos. They provide useful information about the article subject. ■ Vocabulary—New or difficult words are in bold type. You’ll find them explained in the Glossary at the end of the book. ■ Learn More!—Follow these pointers to related articles in the book. These articles are listed in the Table of Contents and appear on the Subject Tabs. Br ® ca itanni LEARNING L I B R A R Y Have a great trip! © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Cathy Freeman was the first Aboriginal to win an individual medal in an Olympic event. She won the 400meter race at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia. © Duomo/Corbis © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Remarkable People in History TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LEADERS AND EMPIRE BUILDERS Martin Luther King, Jr.: Civil Rights Leader . . . . . . . 38 Ashoka: The Emperor and the Right Way of Living . . 6 Tenzing Norgay: On Top of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Julius Caesar: Rome’s Remarkable Mother Teresa: Mother of the Poor and Dying. . . . . . 44 Ferdinand Magellan: Around-the-World Voyager . . . 40 General and Statesman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Fidel Castro: The Man Who Changed Cuba . . . . . . . . 10 ARTISTS, ATHLETES, AND SCIENTISTS Charlemagne: The Father of Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Elizabeth Blackwell: The First Cleopatra: Queen of Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Modern Woman Doctor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Elizabeth I: A Clever, Courageous Queen . . . . . . . . . . 16 Cathy Freeman: Gold Medalist in Track . . . . . . . . . . 48 Empress of China: The Dragon Empress . . . . . . . . . 18 Galileo Galilei: The Man Who Discovered Mohammed Ali Jinnah: Founder of Pakistan . . . . . . 20 Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Nelson Mandela: A Fighter for Rights . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Jane Goodall: The Woman Who Lived Mao Zedong: Architect of Modern China . . . . . . . . . . 24 with Chimpanzees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Golda Meir: Israel’s First Woman Prime Minister. . . 26 Helen Keller: Woman of Courage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Anwar el-Sadat: Egypt’s Man of Peace. . . . . . . . . . . 28 Louis Pasteur: The Man Who Conquered Disease . . . 56 U Thant: World Peacemaker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Pelé: Football Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 William Shakespeare: Plays That Never Grow Old . . 60 HEROES AND DISCOVERERS GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Anne Frank: A Young Girl and Her Diary . . . . . . . . . 32 Simón Bolívar: Hero of Many Nations. . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Mahatma Gandhi: Salt and Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Br ® ca itanni LEARNING L I B R A R Y © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The Emperor and the Right Wa y of Liv i ng  S KNOWs ?a kind and U O Y ID a D ribe reputation is es desc Despite h ome stori s r, le ru s less. generou l and ruth ad all his e ru c s a Ashoka ry, he h to one sto the According d in order to seize le il k brothers throne. SE A T GH ome 2,200 years ago, the emperor Ashoka ruled India. RCH LI Like many ancient rulers, he expanded his empire by conquering new lands. But unlike most rulers, Ashoka suddenly turned his back on warfare and began to govern according to the nonviolent beliefs of Buddhism. It is said that Ashoka became a Buddhist when he saw the horrors caused by the wars he’d led. After that, he decided to Ashoka was an serve his subjects and all humanity instead of conquering Indian others. He called this “conquest by dharma.” In India a) mathematician. dharma means the “right way of living” and “universal b) emperor. truth.” This included being honest, truthful, and kind. It c) priest. also meant being merciful, generous, and thoughtful. The emperor himself would often tour the countryside, preaching his belief in dharma to the people. Ashoka also appointed “dharma ministers” to help relieve people’s sufferings. These ministers were assigned to look after the special needs of women and people living in religious communities. Ashoka passed laws to prevent cruelty to animals and had hospitals built for both people and animals. He also started construction projects to make all people’s lives easier. Trees were planted on roadsides, wells were dug, and watering sheds and rest houses were built. The only recognition Ashoka wanted was for people to remember that he had ruled according to dharma. To preserve his ideas, Ashoka had his teachings carved on rocks and pillars (columns) in public areas. These inscriptions are called the Rock Edicts and Pillar Edicts. The most famous is the lion pillar found at Sarnath, which has become India’s national emblem. LEARN MORE! READ THESE ARTICLES… JULIUS CAESAR • CHARLEMAGNE MAHATMA GANDHI Sarnath, an archaeological site in northern India, is said to be the place where the Buddha first preached to his followers. Ashoka built this stupa (shrine) and others, as well as pillars, to honor the event. © Brian A. Vikander/Corbis 6 © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Answer: b) emperor. © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ★ ASHOKA KNOW? s DID YOSUhakespeare’s play Jureliuthe In William ar is told to “bewa the to aes Caesar, C h.” The ides refers rc nth. a o M m f of the ides o th 5 1 e nd th s are time arou mous word g. fa e s o th Today a warnin s used as sometime © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. JULIUS CAESAR Rome’s Remarka ble General and State sman J ulius Caesar was a brilliant general and a gifted writer. But most important, he helped create the ancient Roman Empire. Early in his career Caesar formed a bond with the two most powerful men in Rome, the wealthy Crassus and the general Pompey. In 59 BC they helped elect Caesar as one of Rome’s two consuls, the government’s highest rank. After a year as consul, Caesar left Rome to govern Gaul (now France). There he earned a reputation as a military leader. He stopped uprisings and invasions, and he even landed in Britain. Caesar also wrote detailed accounts of his battles. While Caesar was in Gaul, Crassus was killed. Pompey now controlled Rome, and he turned against Caesar. He declared Caesar a criminal and ordered him to break up his army. Instead, Caesar declared Sculpture of Julius Caesar, in the National Museum in Naples. war and marched to Rome. Pompey fled to Greece. © Bettmann/Corbis At that time Rome was governed by a senate (a supreme council). But Caesar felt the government was corrupt and needed a strong leader. In 49 BC he declared himself dictator, and he spent five years fighting a civil war against Pompey to make his rule secure. Some RCH LI of the Roman senators worried that Caesar had too much power. On March 15, 44 BC, they murdered Caesar on the floor of the Senate. In the short time he led Rome, Caesar proved to be a great statesman. The changes he made helped begin the 500-year Roman Empire. And for almost 2,000 years after his death, some world leaders used a form of the title “caesar” (such as “Kaiser” in Germany Fill in and “czar” in Russia). SE A  T GH the blank: Caesar took power in Rome after defeating ___________, his former political supporter. LEARN MORE! READ THESE ARTICLES… ASHOKA • CHARLEMAGNE • CLEOPATRA By crossing over the stream known as the Rubicon in 49 BC, Caesar basically declared war against the Roman Senate. “Crossing the Rubicon,” the subject of this engraving, became a phrase that means taking a step from which there’s no turning back. Answer: Caesar took power in Rome after defeating Pompey, his former political supporter. © 2008 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ★ © Bettmann/Corbis 9
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